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Exegetical Commentary on Jonah

Exegetical Commentary on Jonah

by Mike Prah on November 08, 2019

Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Jonah


The book of Jonah is unquestionably one of the masterpieces of Bible literature. The account of Jonah’s dramatic escape from God’s presence by boarding a ship bound for Tarshish, only to be obstructed by a raging storm, returned to land and imprisoned inside the belly of a great fish, is one of the best-known stories in the Bible. The brief narrative of four short chapters has captured the imaginations of authors, painters, poets, and musicians like few other stories have including Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditions who all bear witness to the relevance of Jonah’s message for people of faith. Why does this story have such a powerful and universal appeal? Perhaps a key reason for the story’s ability to transcend the typical barriers of culture and religious differences is its emphasis on the universality of God’s sovereignty and mercy.[1]


The book of Jonah does not explicitly name its author. The traditional view is that it is Jonah, the son of Amittai, a Galilean prophet to Jeroboam II who reigned over the ten northern tribes. Jonah successfully counsels him against the Syrian threat and prophesies the expansion of Israel to its former borders (2 Kgs 14:25). Jonah’s name means “dove.”[2] He comes from the tribe of Zebulon, and the village of Gath-Hepher, which is north of Nazareth in Galilee. He lives near the end of Elisha’s ministry and is a contemporary of Hosea and Amos. In the book of Jonah, which is mostly narrative, there is only one verse of prophetic warning (Jnh 3:4). However, the life and ministry of Jonah is predictive and typical prophecy.[3]

There is no conclusive reason to deny Jonah’s authorship of this book that bears his name. Reasons such as the second chapter is in the first person, and the other chapters are written in the third person, do not rule out his authorship. Moses (Ex 6:27; 7:1,20; 11:3; Nm 12:1-8), Samuel (1 Sm 12:1), Isaiah (Is 38:1; 39:5), and Daniel (Dn 1:1-17) sometimes write in the third person.[4]

Date and Place of Writing

Since 2 Kings 14:25 relates Jonah to the reign of Jeroboam II, the events in the book of Jonah take place sometime in Jeroboam reign (793-753 B.C.). The prophecy then occurs in the period 794 to 752 B.C., probably in the late 760s before Assyria conquers Isreal in 722 B.C.[5] There is no indication of the origin of this prophecy. Jonah may have written from his home village of Gath-Hepher after returning from the ministry to Assyria as he reflects upon the ministry’s success and failure.[6]

Historical Context and Authenticity

A curious fact about Jonah is that the narrative is mostly absent of historical details. Other than YHWH, Jonah mentions no other character besides the mysterious king of Nineveh (Jnh 3:6).  However, the text does not offer any clues as to which of the Neo-Assyrian rulers this “king of Nineveh” might have been. Also, the narrative assumes that Nineveh is the capital of Assyria. This, however, would not have been the case during Jonah’s time given that Nineveh did not become the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire until Sennacherib relocates the center of the government there forty-five years after the period of Jonah’s ministry under Jeroboam II of Israel.[7] Another curiosity of the narrative is its geographical orientation. While 2 Kings 14:25 locates the book of Jonah in the northern kingdom of Israel, the story has a Judean direction with a focus on Jerusalem. Evidence of this is Jonah’s choice of Joppa as the port of passage to Tarshish. Joppa will not be the logical port of departure if Jonah receives the divine call in his hometown of Gath-Hepher. Instead, Acco would have been a much closer port. Furthermore, Jonah’s prayer in chapter 2, orients toward the temple (Jnh 2:4,7).[8]

Opponents of the authenticity of Jonah point to the following difficulties: (1) The use of past tense to describe Nineveh (Jnh 3:3) seems to indicate a much later date than the traditional view of authorship. (2) The size of the city of Nineveh is described in greatly exaggerated terms (Jnh 3:3). (3) The mass repentance of Ninevites lacks historical evidence (4). It is unlikely that a human being could exist within a fish for an extended period.[9] What accounts for the book’s historical vagueness?

First, the narrative may have downplayed historical details to highlight the universality of the book’s message and to facilitate its appropriation by succeeding generations of God’s people. This practice of suppressing historical information in texts to make it fit a liturgy or for smooth transmission to successive generations is well-known in the Hebrew Bible, especially in the psalms.[10] Further, while the book of Jonah relates historical events, it was not written as strict historiography. Instead, since the author’s interests were more theological and didactic than historical and chronological, Jonah chose a genre characterized by less detail – one that offered few distractions from the story’s main point and one that allowed some freedom in portraying the theological purpose.[11]  

Meir Sternberg provides a helpful perspective that reminds us that biblical narrative is a complex interweaving of theology, history, and literary art. Contemporary approaches tend to oversimplify the interaction of these three facets, especially about the book of Jonah. The result is a false dichotomy between the aesthetics of the Jonah, which many interpreters wrongly imply as a fictional account, and the historicity of the book, which others wrongly assume to preclude rhetorical features and creative shaping of the material in keeping with theological emphases.[12] Halpern helpfully reminds us regarding the Hebrew Bible that its “historical narrative is not to be handled as are folklore or the elements of dramatization in historical narrative … a historian’s conviction is not formal evidence of concoction.”[13] A robust historical consciousness characterized the ancient Hebrews. Nonetheless, the form that their history writing took is different from modern historiography with its discounting of supernatural causation and its assumption of objectivity.[14]

Jesus makes several comparisons between Jonah and Himself in the synoptic Gospels validating Jonah’s authenticity (cf. Mt 12:39-41; Lk 11:29-32). The similarities between Jonah and Jesus are noteworthy. Both preach repentance; both reappear alive after three days. Jonah, in a lesser way, brings judgment on himself to save the sailors from possible death (1:12); Jesus sacrifices His life to save humankind. “Just as Jonah’s three-day burial in the fish followed by restoration of the Ninevites functioned as a sign, so the Messiah’s three days in the tomb would function as a sign to Israel and the world.”[15] Jesus’ references to Jonah gives credibility to the narrative and validates its historicity.

Theological Purpose and Key Themes

Jonah is primarily a didactic work, and as many commentaries emphasize, the author’s purpose is not merely to entertain but to educate. The message of Jonah can be synthesized into at least three broad categories: Repentance, Jewish attitudes towards Gentiles, and theodicy.


In Jewish tradition, Jonah, together with the final three verses of Micah, forms part of the ritual on the Day of Atonement when Jews in repentance confess their sins to God.[16] Several commentators agree that repentance is the central theme of Jonah, with differing twists. Jerome suggests that Jonah was “composed to encourage Jews to repent.”[17] If pagan sailors and wicked Ninevites could respond with repentance to prophetic preaching, Jewish hearers ought to do likewise. On the other hand, Clements argues that the book of Jonah is intended to show the possibility of human repentance leading to a subsequent change in divine plans, whereby both man and God may experience a similar change of heart.[18]

Jewish Attitudes Towards Gentiles

The relationship between Jews and Gentiles lies at the heart of two of the popular interpretations of the book of Jonah. Rowley notes, for Augustine, Luther, and many modern theologians, the Jonah narrative emphasizes the “missionary concern of God, whose love and mercy were not limited to the Jews.”[19] Through Jonah, God does not only rebuke those who would confine His saving grace to the Jewish people, but He also forcefully demonstrates His real interest in the salvation of ignorant, sinful pagans. Alternatively, many nineteenth-and twentieth-century scholars have suggested that the book of Jonah is an “attack on the Jewish bigotry against Gentiles which surfaced in the religious reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah.”[20]


Prominent among the various themes in the book of Jonah is the relationship between divine justice and mercy. Kaufman notes that Jonah is the “champion of divine justice. He is the voice of the ancient idea that sin must be punished.”[21] For Warshaw, the book provides three examples of divine mercy having precedence over retributive justice in God forgiving the Ninevites, God recusing Jonah from the sea, and later sheltering him from the sun.”[22] It appears Jonah himself acknowledges the divine prerogative to exercise mercy over punishment (4:2).

The key verse for the book of Jonah is from God in 2:9, “Salvation comes from the Lord.”

Exegetical Outline

Jonah’s Protest: God’s Patience – Chapter 1

Jonah’s Prayer: God’s Power – Chapter 2

Jonah’s Preaching: God’s Pardon – Chapter 3

Jonah’s Pouting: God’s Pity – Chapter 4

Interpretative Commentary

Jonah’s Protest: God’s Patience – Chapter 1

Jnh 1:1-3. The Lord commands Jonah to travel to Nineveh and preach against it because of its wickedness. Jonah, however, boards a ship headed for Tarshish in the opposite direction to get away from the Lord. Nineveh was built by Nimrod and first mentioned in Genesis 10:11. After Jonah’s day, Nineveh became the capital of the Assyrian Empire who destroyed the Northern Kingdom under Sennacherib (705–681 BC). The reason God commands Jonah to pronounce judgment is, the people’s ways were evil and violent (3:8), and they lived care-free lives of no accountability, thinking they were unstoppable (Zeph 2:15). The Prophet Nahum notes several of their crimes (Nahum 3:1,4,16). Nineveh is known for the brutal atrocities it inflicts on its war captives in addition to its idol worship with temples several gods.[23]

Jnh 1:4-17. Soon after Jonah’s ship set sail, God sends a high storm that threatens the lives of everyone on board (1:4). This shows that when God’s prophet is out of fellowship with God, it causes problems not only for himself but also for people around him, in this case, the unbelieving sailors. Though God’s human servant may be in disobedience to Him, God’s servant in nature, the wind, always obeys God’s command[24] (cf., Mt 8:27). The principal person in the narrative is God, not Jonah. To accomplish His purposes, God sovereignly controls various events in the book, including overcoming Jonah’s rebellion, opening the Ninevites’ hearts, and altering the direction of Jonah’s itinerary.[25]

In contrast with the concern of the sailors, Jonah goes “below deck and falls into a deep sleep” (Jnh 1:5-6) undisturbed by the storm’s violent ravages. Ironically, a pagan ship captain has to call a man of God to prayer. What an object lesson to believers to awaken from apathy as desperate people perish on the sea of life.[26] After the sailors call out to their gods and throw the cargo overboard to lighten the ship, all to no avail, they implore Jonah to call on his God, whom he had told them about (Jnh 1:6,10). The sailor's frantic activity (vs.13) shows that self-made solutions do not work (cf., Pr 21:30).[27]  By casting lots, they determine that Jonah’s fleeing from his God caused the storm (1:7-10). The casting of lots to find a culprit or a decision was common in Israel and the ancient Near East counties (cf., Lev 16:8; Josh 18:6, 1 Sam 14:42; Es 3:7, Prov 16:33; Acts 1:26).[28] Jonah then tells them the storm would cease if they throw him overboard. After desperately trying to reach land, and begging mercy and forgiveness from God, they throw Jonah overboard. The storm stops at once, and Jonah is swallowed by a “great fish” (Jnh 1:11-17).

Jonah professes to the sailors that God is the Lord (Yahweh), the covenant-making and keeping God of Israel, the God of heaven, the Creator and the One who made the sea and the land (1:9). Through the failure of their gods (Jnh 1:5) and the faithful witness of Jonah (Jnh 1:9-10), the pagan sailors come to believe in the God of Israel (Jnh 1:14-16). Wilmington suggests that Jonah’s calm amid the storm and his willingness to accept responsibility for the situation (1:12) were strong testimonies as well. Jonah knows that his being thrown into the sea would, at worst, deliver these innocent men, and at best, cause God to miraculously deliver him. [29]

The sovereignty of God as the key figure in this book shows in God providing a fish to swallow Jonah (Jnh 1:17). This is the first of four things that God “provides” in the Jonah narrative (cf. Jnh 4:6-8).

Jonah’s Prayer: God’s Power – Chapter 2

Jnh 2:1-10. Inside the fish, Jonah was in great despair but forgiven. When he realizes that God has miraculously saved him from drowning (2:6), he prays and repents of his rebellion and acknowledges God as the only source of salvation (2:7-9). Jonah had memorized Scriptures because his prayer if full of Scriptures as he uses it to cry out to God (Jnh 2:2; cf., Ps 18:6; 111:15; 120:1).[30] Jonah’s dire circumstances accomplished their purpose to bring him to submission and reliance entirely on God’s mercy (Jnh 2:2). After this, Jonah becomes confident that God would restore Him to normal life (Jnh 2:9).[31]

Unlike his unwilling passenger, the fish obeys its Sovereign God and deposits Jonah onto the dry ground (Jnh 2:10). This scripture passage (Jnh 2:10) resumes the narrative from Jnh 1:17. The deliverance from drowning reaches its climax in Jonah’s deliverance back to the land – probably the land of Israel. What the sailors were unable to do (Jnh 1:13), God did. The Omnipotent God, who sends storm (Jnh 1:4), causes the lot to fall on Jonah (Jnh 1:7), calms the sea (Jnh 1:5), orders the great fish to swallow Jonah (Jnh 1:7), now commands it to vomit him on dry land (Jnh 2:10), thereby completing His deliverance of the prophet.[32]

Jonah’s Preaching: God’s Pardon – Chapter 3

Jnh 3:1-10. After Jonah’s rescue from the great fish, God re-states His commission (Jnh 3:1; cf., Jnh 1:1) without a rebuke, showing that God is gracious in offering a second chance. God insists that care must be given to proclaiming His Word precisely (4:2), which confirms that if Satan cannot block the message, he would seek to pervert it.[33] Unlike in his previous response (Jnh 1:3), Jonah obeys Gods’ word (Jnh 3:3-4). On the first day of his mission, Jonah proclaims that Nineveh will be overthrown in forty days (Jnh 3:4). In what must have been history’s most significant revival, the whole city of Nineveh “from the greatest to the least” responds positively to Jonah’s warning. They believe God (Elohim), and as outward evidence, they proclaim a fast, including the animals and put on sackcloth – a coarse dark cloth made from goat or camel’s hair – as a symbol of sorrow and repentance. Even the king who had previously led Assyria in its wickedness now becomes its leader in repentance (Jnh 3:5-9).[34]

The king moves beyond personal repentance and issues a pronouncement demanding citywide participation in repentance and prayer to God. Significantly, the declaration climaxes with the addition of a new element to the ritual acts mentioned so far – renouncing wickedness and violence (3:7-8). This marks from a clear break from the “typical Assyrian practice of diverting divine wrath by the manipulative means of ritual or divination.”[35] Other Assyrian pronouncements exist that call for public mourning and fasting for the sake of an angry deity, but calls for “ethical change are rare in the vast collection of Assyrian royal pronouncements.”[36] By their repentance, the King was hoping that Jonah’s God will relent and “with compassion turn from His fierce anger,” thereby sparing the city (3:9). This fear of punishment from God is startling because the Assyrians were a cruel, violent nation (cf., Nahum 3:1, 3-4), fearing no one (cf. 2 Kgs 18:33-35).[37]

In response, God relents from destroying Nineveh (Jnh 3:10) because of their genuine repentance. Jesus attributes their revival to sincere repentance and uses it as an example for Israel’s leaders (Lk 11:32; Mt 12:41).[38] The phrase “God relented” (Jnh 3:10) does not mean that he changed His intentions towards Ninevites. Rather, they changed their attitude towards Him and based on that change, God could deal with them in grace rather than in judgment.[39]

Jonah’s Pouting: God’s Pity – Chapter 4

Jnh 4:1-4. What pleases God (Jnh 3:10) dramatically displeases Jonah in that he considers God’s action in sparing Nineveh, wrong. The view that God’s withheld his wrath and instead offered His mercy in response to Nineveh’s repentance makes Jonah angry. Jonah’s original fear that Ninevah might repent (Jnh 4:2) is a “betrayal of his intense hatred of the Assyrians, probably as a result of the misguided Jewish nationalism.” Jonah was holding onto this racial hatred even though he knows it is radically different from God’s attitude (Jnh 4:2).[40]

Jnh 4:5-8. Still bitter, Jonah camps outside Nineveh, probably hoping that God would change his mind again and destroy the city after the 40 days.[41] God, being slow to anger (Jnh 4:2) again, attempts to reason with Jonah (cf., Jnh 4:4). This time God erects a visual object lesson. He provides a large plant to grow to shelter Jonah from the hot sun. Then He provides a worm to destroy the plant. He also provides a “scorching east wind, and the sun to blaze on Jonah’s head so that he grows faint” and plunges once more into self-pity and anger, even to death (Jnh 4:3-4, 9).

Jnh 4:9-11. In Jonah 1:12, Jonah resigns himself to possible death by being thrown overboard, but then he praises God in chapter 2 for sparing his life. He now expresses his preference for dying (Jnh 4:3,8) rather than being restored to serve a merciful God that he professes (Jnh 4:2). While Moses (Nm 11:15) and Elijah (1 Kg 19:4) reached their point of despair under the burden of their ministries, Jonah’s depression is not biblically recommended. Death is a benefit for the believer (Php 1:21), but not to be sought in rebellion to God. Mercifully for Jonah, God responds in great kindness and tenderness than with blasting rebuke (Jnh 4:4). He asks Jonah to ponder and reflect on whether he has good reason to be angry (Jnh 4:9-11; cf., Gen 4:6). [42]

God then confronts Jonah once again: If Jonah has concerns about the death o a soulless plant, why shouldn’t care about the soul of 120,000 Ninevites (Jnh 4:9-11)? There is no merit in being angry at the advancement of God’s cause, the glorification of His name, and personal repentance in which the angels rejoice (Lk 15:10).[43]

Practical Application

The book of Jonah offers several practical applications to the blessed Christian life. Some of the lessons are as follows: First, we cannot hide or run from God (Jnh 1:3, 17). This is true for believers (Ps 139:7-12) and unbelievers (Amos 9:2-3).[44] Ministry is difficult because of the opposition God’s servants face both inside and outside of the faith community. In all cases, regardless of the reason, God’s response to his servants is loving correction, reassurance, and redirection back into the fray of service to God. This also ought to be our response to those who backslide.

Second, the ordeal at sea recorded in Jnh 1:4a-2:1 (Jnh 1:17b) demonstrates that God does not easily give up either on His purposes or His people. He is intent on having His commission fulfilled, and He will not let any of His children escape their role as agents of its fulfillment without a fight. Jonah thus joins the company of others, like Jacob, who wrestled with God over the true effect of election and calling (Gen 32:24-32). We will do well always to remember Paul’s summary of  the point of Jonah 1:4a-2:1 (Jnh 1:17b)  in this statement in Romans 11:29: “God’s gifts and His call are irrevocable.”[45]

Third, God is a God of second chances as Jonah (3:1), and later Peter would find out. In Mark 16:17, Jesus refers to Peter as “Simon son of Jonah, “which suggests some character connection between the apostle and the prophet Jonah. One possible link is Peter’s threefold denial of Jesus’ to follow Him to the cross.[46] Just like Jonah, Peter receives a second chance to submit to Jesus’ commission (Jn 21:15-19).  Jonah and Peter alike are witnesses to the God of second chances. Those who have been scandalized by the inclusiveness of God’s mercy and have fled from sharing that mercy can take heart from Jonah’s and Peter’s shared experience. YHWH is a God of second chances, who “patiently waits for His servants to embrace the call of His scandalous, inclusive grace and mercy.”[47]

Finally, Jonah’s behavior at the close of the book is reminiscent of the older brother in the parable of the prodigal son (Lk 15:11-31). This brother could not bring himself to share in the father’s joy over his younger brother’s repentance. Like the older brother, Jonah isolated himself in his bitterness and exchanged joy for despair over a perceived imbalance in the scales of God’s justice. As James warns: “judgment without mercy will be shown to anyone who has not been merciful. Mercy triumphs over judgment” (Jas 2:13). This means that we must adopt Jesus’ ethic of loving our enemies and interceding on behalf of our oppressors (Mt 5:43-47).



 Baker, David W., T. Desmond Alexander and Bruce K. Waltke. Obadiah, Jonah and Micah. The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries Vol. 26. Downers Grove, Ill: Inter-Varsity Press, 2009.

 Childs, B. S. (1958). “Jonah: A Study in Old Testament Hermeneutics.” Scottish Journal of Theology 11. 1958, pages 53-61. doi:10.1017/S0036930600000077

 Clements, R.E. "The Purpose of the Book of Jonah.” Congress Volume: Edinburg 1974. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1975. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004275515_003 Web.

 Dobson, Edward, Charles E. Feinberg, Edward E. Hindson, Woodrow Michael Kroll, and Harold L. Wilmington. Nelson KJV Bible Commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2005.

Elwell, Walter A. (Gen. Ed.) Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible. Vol. 2. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1988.

 Halpern, Baruch. The First Historians: The Hebrew Bible and History. San Francisco: Haper & Row, 1988.

 Kaufmann, Yehezkel. The Religion of Israel, trans. and abridged M. Greenberg. University of Chicago, 1960.

 Mowinckl, Sigmund. “Psalm Criticism between 1900 and 1935,” in Vetus Testamentum. 1955

 Oswalt, John N. The Bible among the Myths: Unique Revelation or Just Ancient Literature? Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009.

 Rowley, H. H. The Missionary Message of the Old Testament. London: Carey Kingsgate,1955.

 Rydelink, Michael, and Michael Vanlaningham, General Ed. The Moody Bible Commentary. Chicago: Moody Publishers, 2014.

 Steinberg, Meir. The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Reading. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

 Walton, John H. Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2006.

 Walvoord, John F. and Roy B. Zuck., eds. The Bible Knowledge Commentary Old Testament. Colorado Springs: David C. Cook, 1985.

 Warshaw, Thayer S. “The Book of Jonah,” in Kenneth R. R. Gros Louis, James S. Ackerman, Thayer S. Warshaw (eds), Literary Interpretations of Biblical Narratives. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1974.

 Willmington, Harrold L. Willmington’s Bible Handbook. Carol Stream: Tyndale House, 1997.

 Youngblood, Kevin J. Jonah. Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament. A Discourse Analysis of the Hebrew Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2013.



 [1] Kevin J. Youngblood, Jonah. Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament. A Discourse Analysis of the Hebrew Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2013), 25.

 [2] James Bruckner, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. The NIVAC (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2004), 40.

 [3] Michael Rydelink and Michael Vanlaningham, General Ed., The Moody Bible Commentary. (Chicago: Moody Publishers, 2014), 1361.

 [4] Ibid.

 [5] Ibid.      

[6] Edward Dobson, Charles E. Feinberg, Edward E. Hindson, Woodrow Michael Kroll, and Harold L. Wilmington. Nelson KJV Bible Commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2005), 1035.

 [7] Youngblood, Jonah. Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament, 30.

 [8] Ibid., 31.

 [9] Walter A. Elwell, (Gen. Ed.) Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vol. 2 (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1988), 1205.

 [10] Sigmund Mowinckl, “Psalm Criticism between 1900 and 1935,” in Vetus Testamentum (1955), 16-17.

[11] Youngblood, Jonah. Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament, 31.

[12] Meir Sternberg, The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Reading (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985), 41.

[13] Baruch Halpern, The First Historians: The Hebrew Bible and History (San Francisco: Haper & Row, 1988), xvii.

 [14] John N. Oswalt, The Bible among the Myths: Unique Revelation or Just Ancient Literature? (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009), 15.

[15] Rydelink, The Moody Bible Commentary, 1364.

[16] David W. Baker, T. Desmond Alexander and Bruce K. Waltke, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah. The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries Vol. 26 (Downers Grove, Ill: Inter-Varsity Press, 2009), 89.

 [17] Jerome, Commentarioum in Ionam Propetam’, Corpus Christianroum (Series Latina 76 (1969), pp. 376-419. Quoted in: Baker et al, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah. The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries Vol. 26 (Downers Grove, Ill: Inter-Varsity Press, 2009), 89.

 [18] R. E. Clements, "The Purpose of the Book of Jonah.” Congress Volume: Edinburg 1974. Leiden, (The Netherlands: Brill, 1975), Accessed April 27, 2019,  https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004275515_003.

[19] H. H. Rowley, The Missionary Message of the Old Testament (London: Carey Kingsgate,1955), 69.        

[20] B. S. Childs, “Jonah: A Study in Old Testament Hermeneutics,” Scottish Journal of Theology 11. (1958), pages 53-61. doi:10.1017/S0036930600000077

[21] Yehezkel Kaufmann, The Religion of Israel, trans. and abridged M. Greenberg (University of Chicago, 1960), 282-286.

[22] Thayer S. Warshaw, “The Book of Jonah”, in Kenneth R. R. Gros Louis, James S. Ackerman, Thayer S. Warshaw (eds), Literary Interpretations of Biblical Narratives (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1974), 191-207.

[23] John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck., eds. The Bible Knowledge Commentary Old Testament (Colorado Springs: David C. Cook, 1985), 1465.

 [24] Dobson, Nelson KJV Bible, 1035.

 [25] Walvoord, The Bible Knowledge Commentary Old Testament, 1465.

 [26] Ibid., 1466.

 [27] Rydelink, The Moody Bible Commentary, 1364.

 [28] Ibid., 1466.

 [29] Harold L. Willmington, Willmington’s Bible Handbook (Carol Stream: Tyndale House, 1997), 475.

 [30] Rydelink, The Moody Bible Commentary, 1364.

 [31] Willmington, Willmington’s Bible Handbook, 475.

[32] Rydelink, The Moody Bible Commentary, 1364.

 [33] Ibid., 1365.

 [34] Willmington, Willmington’s Bible Handbook, 475.

 [35] John H. Walton, Ancient Near Eastrn Thought and the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2006), 248.

[36] Ibid., 246-248.

 [37] Walvoord, The Bible Knowledge Commentary Old Testament, 1470.

 [38] Rydelink, The Moody Bible Commentary, 1366.

 [39] Dobson, Nelson KJV Bible, 1041.

 [40] Willmington, Willmington’s Bible Handbook, 477.

 [41] Ibid.

 [42] Rydelink, The Moody Bible Commentary, 1367.

 [43] Rydelink, The Moody Bible Commentary, 1367.

 [44] Willmington, Willmington’s Bible Handbook, 478.

 [45] Youngblood, Jonah. Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament, 87

 [46] Peter’s rejection first surfaces in Matthew 16:22 where Peter rebukes Jesus for predicting that His ministry will end in crucifixion – the same context in which Jesus refers to Peter as the “son of Jonah.”

 [47]  Youngblood, Jonah. Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament, 125-127.

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